Due to the sensitive nature of the project and the implications for defence & security and human safety, some content of the documents, reports and presentations has confidential character and will not be disclosed to the general public. In this section we are listing main deliverables. Confidential ones have been completed with a short description about its content: (section under construction)
Data Source Inventory & UXO Warehouse Database (T3.1 & T7.3)
The Data Repository is storing all data obtained from the desk and field research in an online environment. Data from a variety of sources and formats are combined and integrated into one dataset ensuring a homogeneous dataset for the risk assessment. The inventory and the warehouse can be accessed via the following link: https://www.gridit.nl/
For a public demo of the Data source inventory, and the UXO-Warehouse, please see videos included below.
Demo Video: Data Source inventory © Periplus 2023
Demo Video: UXO-Warehouse © Periplus 2023
This report contains a structured summary of historical and archaeological data about the identified ships relevant to the research project. This report is produced only for internal use within the project and includes information about the history of the wreck, technical information of the ship, ammunition, and armament on board, fuel. This information was taken for selecting the wrecks to be surveyed in detail.
Case Study Wreck John Mahn (T3.1)
Poster (for downloading) summarizing main conclusions obtained in the case study John Mahn. The research clearly shows that World War wrecks can be a point source of energetic compound pollution to the marine environment. Exposure of marine fauna to various energetic compounds has been measured in wrecks with high concentrations in water and sediment, therefore, if detected in these, contamination can be assumed. For the risk assessment of a wreck, a historical research of the expected munitions cargo, as well as a sampling of different matrices (mainly water and sediment) is necessary. The data obtained will be incorporated into a risk assessment tool to assist policy makers in making clearing decisions. In a first instance, the remediation of a contaminated wreck is already in the planning stage.
Case Study Preparation Report (T3.2)
The North Sea Wrecks project aimed to provide a comprehensive methodology to assess the environmental risks posed by (munition-bearing) wrecks, which is applicable in all North Sea bordering Member States.
The report describes respective data sources, incl. maps of maritime heritage sites, and provides methods to explore these data and conduct field sampling with research vessels. Ultimately, the consortium is developing a model-based tool which will allow economic actors and policy makers to conduct a desk-based risk assessment of wrecks to determine their potential environmental risk considering human activities at sea.
To develop our risk assessment tool, new empiric data from sunken wrecks in the North Sea was required.
As a first step of the project, we needed to select a number of case study wrecks spread across the various Member states. To assess the current situation on potential leaks of TNT from ammunitions on wrecks research was done on several case studies in Belgium, The Netherlands, Germany, and Denmark. This report details the case study wreck selection process
Scenario Definition Report (T3.4)
This report describes the steps undertaken to assess the risk of single wrecks and perform prioritization amongst the analysed wrecks.
Potentially polluting wrecks containing oil, munition or other hazardous substances pose a threat to the marine environment. Every shipwreck poses a unique case depending on, for example, the type of vessel, cause of sinking, and environmental conditions it is exposed to, making it a complex problem with many uncertainties. This is made even more difficult by the multitude of wrecks and the labour and cost intensive work to gather needed information for each individual wreck. For the same reason, it is not feasible to remediate all shipwrecks due to the large cost and hence a prioritization according to estimated risks is inevitable.
To prioritize and provide decision support for individual wrecks, the North Sea Wreck Projects and resulting Wreckns tool provides a framework able to collect and visualize data and uses these to provide a probabilistic risk assessment supported by available field measurements allowing the prioritization for the cases that require attention towards remediation. The ability to navigate through all available data subsequently serves further interdisciplinary investigation, identification, and fulfilment of possibly lacking information.
In this feasibility study, FFI considered the suitability of using AUV with synthetic aperture sonar (SAS) technology for detecting structural changes on shipwrecks, within a time frame of 7 years. The potential application is monitoring of shipwrecks and their conditions in dumpsites. The study contains a description of the specific challenges related to both SAS imaging, mapping, and CD of shipwrecks.
Wreck 13 in the Skagerrak dumpsite was selected as a test-case for this study. This is a wreck where we have collected SAS-data in 2015, 2019 and 2022 using the same SAS system. The use of this approach, allows to successfully co-register local images, produce difference images and detect small changes. To verify that the detected changes are real changes, the similarity in the imaging geometry for the repeated passes must be investigated. Shadow regions should be flagged and ignored in the change maps.
In conclusion, AUV with equipped with SAS can be used for long term monitoring of shipwrecks if requirements are met regarding the similarity in the data collection and the sensor, and the choice of processing.
Risk Assessments & North Sea Wrecks Risk Assessment Tool (T4.1)
This report summarizes the results from work package 4 and deals with the risk assessment and data management tool that has been developed in the framework of the North Sea Wrecks project (see demo video below).
This report structured in 4 chapters describing the risk assessment method used and how it has been integrated in a web application. The North Sea Wreck Tool provides an approach where collaboration between different experts (historical, geotechnical, salvaging, legal, scientific) is possible via a centralized online platform to collect and share all relevant data and documentation. This web application revolves around the risk assessment method to process all data and extract information about the probability the wreck is damaged, encounters with human activities take place and risk that it leaks harmful substances into the environment.
The wrecks are considered case-by-case and compared to each other. While the collaborating users maintain the wreck information, the risk assessments are automatically calculated, and wrecks are compared and prioritized according to their risk, assisting the user to keep track of those wrecks which may be of concern/priority.
Demo video demonstrating the functionalities of the WRECKNS Decision Support Tool. Demo video: North Sea Wrecks Assessment Tool WRECKENS © North.io 2023
Demo Video: North Sea Wrecks Risk Assessment Tool WRECKENS © North.io 2023
WP5 aimed to define a common approach and transnational policy recommendations to address hazards (and opportunities) emerging from wrecks and UXO in the North Sea. This report contains the results of the legal research that were carried out by NHL Stenden University of Applied Sciences and Hanze Hogeschool. This report also describes the impact the NSW project has had on the work of the OSPAR EIHA Committee to come to a common approach and transnational policy recommendation regarding risk assessment of munition in the OSPAR marine area
This report includes information on the NSW Summer School program, participants, feedback received and the follow-up. In 2020-2021, Aarhus University, DSM and Maritime Institute Willen Barentsz organized the NSW Summer School in close cooperation with project partners VLIZ, Kiel University, Periplus and North.io. A draft program was created including short lectures by specialists followed by two case studies on the NSW selected wrecks John Mahn in Belgian waters and UC 30 in Danish waters.
The NSW Summer School was promoted online and at NHL Stenden, Aarhus University and Kiel University by NSW project partners. On 26-27 September 2022 the NSW Summer School took place at NHL Stenden’s Maritime Institute Willem Barentsz on Terschelling, the Netherlands with the possibility to join online.
NSW Travelling Exhibition (T6.1)
the consortium conceptualized an international travelling exhibition that toured since 2021 through several European countries to raise public awareness and involve even more political actors in another transnational network. This itinerary exhibition will be part of the permanent exhibition at the German maritime Museum. At the Website of the German Maritime Museum, a digital version of the Travelling Exhibition can be found.
DSM Travelling Exhibition Reports (T6.1)
This is a compilation of the Reports containing information about the TRAVEX Travelling exhibition in the different locations. These reports include pictures of the installations, gathers statistics about the number of visitors, side events, feedback obtained and some contacts established during the exhibition.
Report on the final project symposium “North Sea Wrecks – Toxic Legacies of War”, April 19-20, 2023, Bremerhaven, Germany (T6.4)
From April 19-20, 2023, the final symposium of the North Sea Wrecks project was held at the Alfred Wegener Institute in Bremerhaven, organized by the German Maritime Museum. The symposium was the culmination of over 4.5 years of transnational and transdisciplinary research in this project. The symposium was attended by 72 people on site and a fluctuating number of about 50 people on-line via the videoconferencing.
This report serves to document the symposium, summarizes the presentations given there and the press reactions to the symposium.
Prototype Modelling the Marine Food Chain under North Sea Conditions (T7.1)
For a long time, the hazard of sunken shipwrecks mainly considered was the danger presented to shipping. However, two other hazards have come to light over the years: the potential explosion of unexploded conventional munition remnants (UXO) and the corrosion and degradation of wrecks and materials containing the explosives. Both provoke the release of the chemicals contained into the environment and the possibility they are absorbed into the food chain and its consequences for animal and human health should be considered.
This report contains main conclusions obtained from Modelling the Marine Food Chain under North Sea Conditions to infer the accumulation or bioconcentration of energetic compounds (EC) along the marine food chain and to perform a risk assessment for the human seafood consumer. A toxicological risk assessment for the marine biota living at shipwrecks was conducted to infer the transport of EC into the marine food chain and to calculate a possible threat to the human seafood consumer upon eating marine seafood from a wreck site. This report contains results for the food chain under North Sea conditions.
Removal Options of Unexploded Ordnance in and near Shipwrecks (T4.4 & T7.2) The current state of knowledge on analytical processes, monitoring, and legal background.
This study aims to outline these techniques and methods (removal, explosive ordnance disposal (EOD), often via detonation on-site using a high-order detonation (blast-in-place; BiP) while highlighting the hazards associated with neglecting these remnants of war. This report summarizes:
- currently available techniques, options and methods for clearing UXO;
- Current legislative basis (International; EU, national level)
- Evaluation of biomonitoring strategies
DSM Travex Reports (T6.1)
This is a compilation of the Reports containing information about the TRAVEX Travelling exhibition in the different locations. These reports include pictures of the installations, gathers statistics about the number of visitors and some feedback obtained, side events organised and contacts made.
Videos Published about the research expeditions:
Video © Institut for Geoscience - Aarhus Universitet 2018-2023
Video © Institut for Geoscience - Aarhus Universitet 2018-2023
Video © German Maritime Museum 2018-2023
Video © AU - Aarhus University and Danish Navy, DSM - German maritime Museum, VLIZ - Flanders Marine Institute 2021
In following section, we are including a list of available deliverables:
- Report #7: Appendix_8_AU_Omnibus_Newspaper_Article
- Report #7: Appendix_9_AU_Jyllandposten_Newspaper_Article
- Report #8: Warship wrecks and their munition cargos as a threat to the marine environment and humans: The V 1302 “JOHN MAHN” from World War II
- Report #8: 80 years later: Marine sediments still influenced by an old war ship
- Report #8: North Sea Wrecks - An interdisciplinary approach towards understanding the risks posed by wrecks containing munitions in the North Sea
- Report #8: “Don’t Blast”: blast‑in‑place (BiP) operations of dumped World War munitions in the oceans significantly increase hazards to the environment and the human seafood consumer
- Report #8: RI.2 Number of National policies (regulations, initiatives, strategies) influenced by the project thanks to the input provided (1 by participant country (NO, DK, DE, NL, BE) + FOOD SAFETY
- Report #3: 2 Industry Stakeholders and the Scientiifc Community as target group
- Report #8: 3 Curriculum - Summer School in 2022
- Report #8: 2 Industry Stakeholders and the Scientiifc Community as target group
- Report #8: Task 3.5 Deep Water Case Study in the Norwegian part of Skagerrak
- NSW Poster
- NSW Report on Management Guidelines and Policy Recommendations
- NSW Report on 2022 Summer School
- D4.4/7.2 Discussing Removal Options of Unexploded Ordnance in and near Shipwrecks. The current state of knowledge on analytical processes, monitoring, and legal background.
- Report on the final project symposium “North Sea Wrecks – Toxic Legacies of War”, April 19-20, 2023, Bremerhaven, Germany.
- Case Study Wreck John Mahn (Poster for download)
- North Sea Wrecks: eine Chance für blaues Wachstum in der Nordsee
- Forskningen rykker ud – med hjerner, nitrogen og skibsvrag fra Første Verdenskrig, JP Aarhus (DK), April 2022
- Museum inviteret med i sprængfarligt forskningsprojekt, DagblaD et Holstebro- struer / FolkeblaDet lemvig (DK) February 2020