Output library

Project publications are listed here as ZEM Ports NS progresses

Indoor Climate Modeling and Optimal Planning With Respect To Electricity Prices

Abstract- This paper proposes an optimal energy planning method for minimizing the cost of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) of a building. Firstly, an RC (Resistance-Capacitance) state space model which can describe the thermal and CO2 dynamics of a building is established. Its parameters can be estimated based on time-series measurements: solar radiation, outside temperature, room temperature, number of occupants, ventilation rate, heating supply, CO2 level, etc. Secondly, this state space model in continuous time domain is rearranged and discretized . Thirdly, the discretized model is converted to constraints and an energy planning method based on linear programming is made for minimizing the costs of CO2 level and room temperature controls.

Flexible Block Offers and A Three-stage Market Clearing Method for Distribution-level Electricity Markets with Grid Limits

Abstract - This paper proposes a new flexibility management method which can offer incentives to flexibility service providers so that they are encouraged to actively participate into the congestion management of distribution grids. The proposed method consists of a three-stage market clearing method and three types of flexible block offers: flexible demand bids, flexibility service offers, and energy arbitrage blocks. These cover most of the needs of flexibility providers. These flexible block offers are more efficient in terms of computation burden in comparison with the other flexibility offers in the existing literature. Flexibility prices are specified in these flexible block offers, which can guarantee a certain level of rewards for the customers who can help in the congestion management process. Case studies on a modified Roy Billinton Test System demonstrated the efficacy of the proposed flexibility management method for managing congestion and encouraging customers to provider flexibility services.

Indoor Climate Modelling and Optimal Planning With Respect to Electricity Prices

Abstract— This paper proposes an optimal energy planning method for minimizing the cost of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) of a building. Firstly, an RC (Resistance-Capacitance) state space model which can describe the thermal and CO2 dynamics of a building is established. Its parameters can be estimated based on time-series measurements: solar radiation, outside temperature, room temperature, number of occupants, ventilation rate, heating supply, CO2 level, etc. Secondly, this state space model in continuous time domain is rearranged and discretized. Thirdly, the discretized model is converted to constraints and an energy planning method based on linear programming is made for minimizing the costs of CO2 level and room temperature controls. Finally, case studies of a teaching building are carried out to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed optimal planning method. 

Verification of multi-energy system components for renewable integration

Abstract— Proprietary software is used by utility companies throughout Europe to predict the district energy network parameters. TERMIS, NEPLAN and NetSim, widely used in Denmark, are limited to static or quasi-static models of electrical, thermal and hydraulic phenomena. Integration of new technology in a multi-energy network requires fully dynamic modeling to accurately estimate physical parameters and run model predictions. In the present study, a dynamic modeling software for district multi-energy systems is presented and dynamic modelling framework Dymola is compared to the quasi-static software TERMIS. District heating system components are developed in Dymola, verified in TERMIS and applied to the case where the pump consumption is partially covered by the wind-generated power. The proposed modeling approach brings possibilities for (a) dynamic analysis of the integration of renewable technologies into the future district heating network and (b) comparison of existing and innovative multi-energy systems considering their real-time status and performance.

Towards a 100% renewable island power system with energy storage: modelling, optimization, and cost analysis

Abstract - A Danish island, Aero, has wind power more than it needs, but still has to import power from the mainland due to the balance issue of the island. In addition, Aero has just set up an e-ferry to facilitate transportation between the island and the mainland over a 20 km distance. This paper will study the minimum storage that will be needed to support the balance of its 100% renewable-based energy system, i.e., reduce the power import from the mainland to zero. The analysis will include different storage technologies with different efficiencies, such as Lithium-ion battery (close to 100% round-trip efficiency) and high-temperature thermal storage (about 41% round-trip efficiency) since they require different optimization models. The results show that for the case with a low round-trip efficiency, more wind power will be required in order to be 100% self-sufficient. In addition, as the self-sufficiency (the percentage of the total energy consumption that is supplied by the island itself) goes up, the required size of the storage goes up even quicker.

Navigating Towards Cleaner Maritime Shipping, Lessons From the Nordic Region - International Transport Forum

Executive summary- What we did -This report analyses prospects for energy use in the Nordic shipping sector. It outlines potential solutions that could allow the region to pro-actively respond to the imperatives of energy diversification, the reduction of local pollutants and the abatement of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. As the Nordic region is pioneering efforts to reduce the environmental impact of maritime shipping, making the findings of this report relevant around the globe. The assessment covers technologies and polices. It reviews technological options to improve the ships’ energy efficiency and low-emission fuels, and outlines technical and financial barriers to their widespread adoption. Surveys of recent projects in the Nordic countries support the analysis. The policy review ranges from high-level national climate goals to targeted pricing measures, incentives and regulatory instruments. It includes an in-depth analysis of the regulatory frameworks in place in the Nordic maritime sector.

 Abstract— This paper proposes an optimal energy planning method for minimizing the cost of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) of a building. Firstly, an RC (Resistance-Capacitance) state space model which can describe the thermal and CO2 dynamics of a building is established. Its parameters can be estimated based on time-series measurements: solar radiation, outside temperature, room temperature, number of occupants, ventilation rate, heating supply, CO2 level, etc. Secondly, this state space model in continuous time domain is rearranged and discretized. Thirdly, the discretized model is converted to constraints and an energy planning method based on linear programming is made for minimizing the costs of CO2 level and room temperature controls. Finally, case studies of a teaching building are carried out to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed optimal planning method.