Output library

Project publications are listed here as ZEM Ports NS progresses

Flexible Block Offers and A Three-stage Market Clearing Method for Distribution-level Electricity Markets with Grid Limits

Abstract - This paper proposes a new flexibility management method which can offer incentives to flexibility service providers so that they are encouraged to actively participate into the congestion management of distribution grids. The proposed method consists of a three-stage market clearing method and three types of flexible block offers: flexible demand bids, flexibility service offers, and energy arbitrage blocks. These cover most of the needs of flexibility providers. These flexible block offers are more efficient in terms of computation burden in comparison with the other flexibility offers in the existing literature. Flexibility prices are specified in these flexible block offers, which can guarantee a certain level of rewards for the customers who can help in the congestion management process. Case studies on a modified Roy Billinton Test System demonstrated the efficacy of the proposed flexibility management method for managing congestion and encouraging customers to provider flexibility services.

Verification of multi-energy system components for renewable integration

Abstract— Proprietary software is used by utility companies throughout Europe to predict the district energy network parameters. TERMIS, NEPLAN and NetSim, widely used in Denmark, are limited to static or quasi-static models of electrical, thermal and hydraulic phenomena. Integration of new technology in a multi-energy network requires fully dynamic modeling to accurately estimate physical parameters and run model predictions. In the present study, a dynamic modeling software for district multi-energy systems is presented and dynamic modelling framework Dymola is compared to the quasi-static software TERMIS. District heating system components are developed in Dymola, verified in TERMIS and applied to the case where the pump consumption is partially covered by the wind-generated power. The proposed modeling approach brings possibilities for (a) dynamic analysis of the integration of renewable technologies into the future district heating network and (b) comparison of existing and innovative multi-energy systems considering their real-time status and performance.

Towards a 100% renewable island power system with energy storage: modelling, optimization, and cost analysis

Abstract - A Danish island, Aero, has wind power more than it needs, but still has to import power from the mainland due to the balance issue of the island. In addition, Aero has just set up an e-ferry to facilitate transportation between the island and the mainland over a 20 km distance. This paper will study the minimum storage that will be needed to support the balance of its 100% renewable-based energy system, i.e., reduce the power import from the mainland to zero. The analysis will include different storage technologies with different efficiencies, such as Lithium-ion battery (close to 100% round-trip efficiency) and high-temperature thermal storage (about 41% round-trip efficiency) since they require different optimization models. The results show that for the case with a low round-trip efficiency, more wind power will be required in order to be 100% self-sufficient. In addition, as the self-sufficiency (the percentage of the total energy consumption that is supplied by the island itself) goes up, the required size of the storage goes up even quicker.

Navigating Towards Cleaner Maritime Shipping, Lessons From the Nordic Region - International Transport Forum

Executive summary- What we did -This report analyses prospects for energy use in the Nordic shipping sector. It outlines potential solutions that could allow the region to pro-actively respond to the imperatives of energy diversification, the reduction of local pollutants and the abatement of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. As the Nordic region is pioneering efforts to reduce the environmental impact of maritime shipping, making the findings of this report relevant around the globe. The assessment covers technologies and polices. It reviews technological options to improve the ships’ energy efficiency and low-emission fuels, and outlines technical and financial barriers to their widespread adoption. Surveys of recent projects in the Nordic countries support the analysis. The policy review ranges from high-level national climate goals to targeted pricing measures, incentives and regulatory instruments. It includes an in-depth analysis of the regulatory frameworks in place in the Nordic maritime sector.

Operational profile measurements of an inland container vessel and sizing of fuel cells and hydrogen storage

Future Proof Shipping (FPS), chose to retrofit their inland vessel the Maas to full zero-emission technology by replacing the existing internal combustion engines with hydrogen fuel cell technology. Proper sizing of fuel cells is crucial for this project. They measured the power profile of the vessel for several months to ensure a deep understanding of the operations. The power profile includes power demand of the main propulsors together with hotel load and auxiliary power demand. This white paper shows the results of the measurements and presents the basis for the selection and sizing of the fuel cells and hydrogen storage. These results can also be used as reference values for other similar inland container vessels.

CO2 footprint and life cycle analysis of inland vessels powered with renewable technologies

While there is a general consensus that renewable technologies such as hydrogen and battery-based solutions provide significant improvement of the CO2 footprint for inland vessels, there are still some questions related to the overall life cycle impact of these new technologies. For example, what are the dominant factors in the overall CO2 footprint, and more specifically, what is the contribution of the production phase in comparison to the operational phase of inland vessels? Together with the Technical University of Eindhoven, FPS performed a comprehensive desktop study based on available life cycle data and literature, using the FPS Maas as the test case. They concluded that the most dominant phase in the lifecycle of an inland vessel - with the highest CO2 footprint - is the operational phase.

Assessment of the scalability of (hydrogen) retrofit solutions as a greening solution across the inland waterway fleet

The central commission for navigation on the Rhine (CCNR) has set an ambition of a 35% reduction in emissions by 2035. This paper aims to translate these ambitions into clearer targets for the industry.

The paper analyzes how many vessels in the Dutch inland waterway fleet need to be zero emissions (ZE) by 2035 to meet the goal, and investigates two pathways to reach that number: retrofitting and replacement by newbuild.

This paper then discusses the integration of hydrogen (H2) into non-port (re)fuelling infrastructure for inland waterways, with the aim of achieving 100% emission reduction. The focus is on proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEFMC) propulsion systems and key parameters for retrofitting vessels to hydrogen propulsion, such as H2 production and shipyard capacity. FPS findings show that while hydrogen propulsion technologies and Green H2 production will be available at sufficient capacity, the clear bottleneck is shipyard (retrofitting) capacity.

An analysis on the port infrastructure to new E-ferries

The report is a case study analysing port infrastructure strategies for the charging of battery electric ferries on the Island of Ærø participating in the ZEM Ports North Sea project. Barriers are identified from the EU Horizon 2020 E-Ferry project and its charging station in the port of Søby. These findings are used to define three alternative strategies for design and operational setup of shore infrastructure in a case study for two new E-ferry Twins planned to operate from the Island of Ærø in 2026.

Hydrogen refuelling solutions for the H2 Barge 1 and FPS Waal

The paper discusses the key lessons learned from designing and operating the hydrogen fuel system for the H2 Barge 1 (formerly FPS Maas) and the FPS Waal. This includes the challenges of operating hydrogen-powered vessels, such as the limited availability of refuelling infrastructure, and the need for close collaboration between vessel owners, regulators, and hydrogen infrastructure providers. This paper then explores the novel set of operations conducted by the crew of H2 container refuelling and the design considerations to ensure that the safety of the system is independent of operations. It also discusses the future outlook for inland vessels, and identifies two promising types of hydrogen storage: Type IV
gaseous hydrogen containers and liquid hydrogen tanks. Type IV containers offer two key advantages over Type II storage: lower tank weight and higher storage capacity. This allows for the design of zeroemission inland vessels that can travel much longer distances on a single refuel without compromising additional cargo hold space.